more tallbloke backup

  1. thefordprefect says: Your comment is awaiting moderation.
  2. Effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen on wheat growth and photosynthesis
    M. PAL1, L.S. RAO, V. JAIN, A.C. SRIVASTAVA*, R. PANDEY, A. RAJ and K.P. SINGH
    Division of Plant Physiology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India
    Abstract
    The effects of nitrogen [75 and 150 kg (N) ha-1] and elevated CO2 on growth, photosynthetic rate, contents of soluble leaf proteins and activities of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and nitrate reductase (NR) were studied on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. HD-2285) grown in open top chambers under either ambient (AC) or elevated (EC) CO2 concentration (350 ± 50, 600 ± 50 μmol mol-1) and analyzed at 40, 60 and 90 d after sowing. Plants grown under EC showed greater photosynthetic rate and were taller and attained greater leaf area along with higher total plant dry mass at all growth stages than those grown under AC. Total soluble and Rubisco protein contents decreased under EC but the activation of Rubisco was higher at EC with higher N supply. Nitrogen increased the NR activity whereas EC reduced it. Thus, EC causes increased growth and PN ability per unit uptake of N in wheat plants, even if N is limiting.
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    Effects of elevated CO2 on the protein concentration of food crops: a meta-analysis
    DANIEL R. TAUB1,2, BRIAN MILLER1 and HOLLY ALLEN2
    Abstract
    Meta-analysis techniques were used to examine the effect of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide [CO2] on the protein concentrations of major food crops, incorporating 228 experimental observations on barley, rice, wheat, soybean and potato. Each crop had lower protein concentrations when grown at elevated (540–958 μmol mol−1) compared with ambient (315–400 μmol mol−1) CO2. For wheat, barley and rice, the reduction in grain protein concentration was ∼10–15% of the value at ambient CO2. For potato, the reduction in tuber protein concentration was 14%. For soybean, there was a much smaller, although statistically significant reduction of protein concentration of 1.4%. The magnitude of the CO2 effect on wheat grains was smaller under high soil N conditions than under low soil N….

     

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    Cassava is an important food for millions of people in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. When grown in conditions of increased CO2, however, its cyanide levels jump.
    http://monash.edu/science/about/schools/biological-sciences/staff/gleadow/docs/gleadow-2009-cassava-online.pdf
    The effects of nitrogen [75 and 150 kg (N) ha-1] and elevated CO2 on growth, photosynthetic rate, contents of soluble leaf proteins and activities of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and nitrate reductase (NR) were studied on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. HD-2285) grown in open top chambers under either ambient (AC) or elevated (EC) CO2 concentration (350 ± 50, 600 ± 50 μmol mol-1) and analyzed at 40, 60 and 90 d after sowing. Plants grown under EC showed greater photosynthetic rate and were taller and attained greater leaf area along with higher total plant dry mass at all growth stages than those grown under AC. Total soluble and Rubisco protein contents decreased under EC but the activation of Rubisco was higher at EC with higher N supply. Nitrogen increased the NR activity whereas EC reduced it. Thus, EC causes increased growth and PN ability per unit uptake of N in wheat plants, even if N is limiting.

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2 Comments

  1. Posted 2014/04/03 at 11:36 | Permalink | Reply

    thefordprefect says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    April 3, 2014 at 12:14 pm
    [Reply] “Cyanide levels jump” from harmless trace to … harmless trace. Like co2. Eggs contain arsenic too Nice try at scaremongering though – TB

    Doesn’t sound like a harmless trace to me!:
    http://www.cfs.gov.hk/english/multimedia/multimedia_pub/multimedia_pub_fsf_19_01.html

    ….Sweet cassava roots can generally be made safe to eat by peeling and thorough cooking. However, bitter cassava roots require more extensive processing. One of the traditional ways to prepare bitter cassava roots is by first peeling and grating the roots, and then prolonged soaking of the gratings in water to allow leaching and fermentation to take place, followed by thorough cooking to release the volatile hydrogen cyanide gas. Cutting the roots into small pieces, followed by soaking and boiling in water is particularly effective in reducing the cyanide content in cassava. Whilst fresh cassava requires traditional methods to reduce its toxicity, adequately processed cassava flour and cassava-based products have very low cyanide contents and are considered safe to use….

    thefordprefect says:
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    April 3, 2014 at 12:32 pm
    Kon Dealer says:
    April 3, 2014 at 11:40 am

    If I buy 1kg of low CO2 grain at £z I get x amount of protein
    If I buy 1kg of High CO2 grain probably at £z I get x*0.9 amount of protein.and more carbohydrate

    Or I could buy High CO2 grain grown with more fertiliser at £z*y (y greater than 1) and get what I was getting at current CO2 levels

    Which makes more sense to impoverished people?

    In UK grain crops have been selected to have short sturdy stems (compared to 60s) to ensure they remain standing at harvest time. Taller, leafier plants will reverse that selection + they will attempt to take more nitrogen from the soil.
    Perhaps straw thatching will become fashionable?

    Having had nothing to do with biological science since gcse’s I can only quote others and this does not seem like no reduction in grain protein in rice:

    (from 2013)
    The effects of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) on carbon and
    nitrogen accumulation in grains of rice (Oryza sativa L.)
    Abstract
    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations will probably increase rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield but decrease grain nitrogen (GN) concentration. Grains attached to different positions in the anicles differ greatly in weight and quality, but their responses to elevated CO2 (e[CO2]) are poorly understood, which limits our understanding of the mechanisms of yield enhancement and quality degradation. Thus a free-air CO2 enrichment experiment was conducted to examine the
    effects of e[CO2] on grain mass (GM), grain carbon (GC), and GN accumulation in the spikelets attached to the upper primary rachis branch (superior spikelets; SS) and those attached to the lower secondary rachis (inferior spikelets;IS). e[CO2] stimulated the rice yield by 13% but decreased the N concentration in the panicle by 7% when averaged over two levels of N fertilizations (P < 0.01). The responses of SS and IS to e[CO2] were different particularly under
    higher N supply. For SS, e[CO2] decreased GN by 24% (P < 0.01) but did not affect GM. For IS, e[CO2] increased GM by 13% (P < 0.05) but GN was not affected. The reduction of GN due to e[CO2] started to appear at the beginning of grain filling. These results suggest that future [CO2] levels probably stimulate the grain growth of IS, most of which are not marketable due to limited size, at the expense of GN reduction in SS. Translocation of N from SS to IS may be a possible mechanism for reduction in GN of SS. This may degrade the grain quality of marketable rice under e[CO2].

  2. thefordprefect
    Posted 2017/01/28 at 14:18 | Permalink | Reply

    Your comment is awaiting moderation. how much does nuclear cost? https://s25.postimg.org/5bln1e33j/fukushima_cost.jpg £151bn ($190bn us) just to clean up a mess cost of Chernobyl $235bn (2005) plus $1.2bn for new Chernobyl shelter just 2 accidents cost $426bn to clean Want to look at subsidies then check out Hinkley C in UK “The National Audit Office estimates the additional cost to consumers under the “strike price” will be £29.7 billion” One of the costs of nuclear/conventional not usually considered is the “spinning” reserve required as fast backup when one of the generators trips. “By approving Hinkley Point on Thursday, the U.K. government cleared the way for GE to begin building two 1,770-megawatt Arabelle steam ” — So 1 turbine trip looks to need 1.8GW of spinning reserve in case it trips This is just about handled by the current NG (it wasn’t when Sizewell and Longannet tripped in 2008 http://www.nationalgrid.com/NR/rdonlyres/E19B4740-C056-4795-A567-91725ECF799B/32165/PublicFrequencyDeviationReport.pdf When a windmill falls over it removes at most 7Mw from the grid The best answer to power generation is conserve heat, improve household efficiency. – See more at: http://notrickszone.com/2017/01/27/germany-120-billion-euros-for-5-electricity-supply-and-huge-new-green-movement-against-wind-power/comment-page-1/#comment-1159549

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